Jumat, 07 Oktober 2016

Introduction Etichs In Review


Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term ethics derives from the Ancient Greek word ἠθικόςethikos, which is derived from the word ἦθος ethos (habit, "custom"). The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values.
As a branch of philosophy, ethics investigates the questions "What is the best way for people to live?" and "What actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances?" In practice, ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality, by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. As a field of intellectual enquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory.
Definition of Ethics According to the Experts :
  • According to K. Bertens Understanding Ethics: Ethics is a value-indigo and moral norms, which becomes a handle for a person or group in regulating behavior.
  • According to WJS Poerwadarminto Understanding Ethics: Ethics is the science of the principles of morality (moral).
  • Understanding Ethics According to Prof. DR. Franz Magnis Suseno: Ethics is a science that seek orientation or science that gives direction and a foothold in human action.
  • Understanding Ethics According Ramali and Pamuncak: Ethics is knowledge about the correct behavior in a profession.
  • According to HA Mustafa Understanding Ethics: Ethics is the science which investigates, which is good and which are bad by observing human deeds as far as can be known by the mind.
Principles of Ethics

In the history of human civilization since the fourth century BC thinkers have tried to define the various shades of ethical foundation to guide social life. Thinkers have identified at least there are hundreds of ideas the great (great ideas). The whole idea or the grand idea can be summarized into six principles that are an important cornerstone of ethics, namely beauty, equality, kindness, justice, freedom, and truth.

     1.     Principle Of Beauty
This principle underlies everything that includes the enjoyment of pleasure to beauty. Based on this principle, people pay attention to the values of beauty and want to show something wonderful in his behavior. For example in dress, spatial planning, and so making it more eager to work.

     2.     Principle Of Equation
Every human being by nature have right and responsibilities are same, so it appears the demand to equity between men and women, racial equity in various other field. this prinsiple underlies behaviour diskriminatif on any basis.

     3.     Prinsiple Of Godness
This principle underlies the behavior of individuals to always seek to do good in their interaction with their environment. This principle is usually respect of human values such as respect- respect, compassion, helping others, and so forth. Humans by nature always want to do good, because by doing good he will be accepted by the environment. Governance and service provided to the public in fact aims to create the good of society.

     4.     Prinsiple Of Justice
Fixed and eternal willingness to give everyone what they should get. Therefore, this principle underlies a person to act in a fair and proportionate and do not take anything into the rights of others.

     5.     Principle Of Freedom
as the freedom of individuals to act or not act according to his own choice. In the principle of life and human rights, every human being has the right to do things according to his own will does not damage or interfere with the rights of others.Therefore, every freedom should be accompanied by responsibility so that people do not take action arbitrarily to others. For that individual freedom here interpreted as:
  • The ability do something or make a selection
  • Capability that allows humans to make these choices
  • The ability to account for his actions

     6.     Principle Of Truth
Truth is usually used in the logic of science that emerged from the ideas of logical / rational. Truth must be proven and shown that the truth can be believed by the individual and society. Not every truth can be accepted as true if it has not been proven. 

All the principles that have been described it is a basic precondition in the development of ethical values or code of conduct in relations between individuals, individuals with society, government, and so on. Ethics is structured as a rule of law that will regulate people's lives, communities, organizations, government agencies, and employees should really be able to ensure the creation of beauty, equality, kindness, justice, freedom, and truth for everyone.

Base Theory Of Etihcs

     1.     Teleology
from the Greek word telos is goal. Measuring the merits of an action based on the goal would be achieved by the action, or based on the consequences caused by the action. Two streams teleology ethics :
     -  Ethical Egoism
     -  Utilitarianism
     -  Ethical Egoism
Selfishness core view is that the actions of each people basically aims to pursue personal and promote himself. the only purpose of moral action to everyone is the persuit of personal interests and promote themselve. the new egoism becomes a serious problem when it tends come to hedonism. when happiness and personal interst transleted solely as physical pleasure that is vulgar.

     2.     Deontology
Deontology comes from the Greek, meaning deon obligations. Namely the human obligation to always act well. An action is said to be good and moral as that action be taken by the obligations that must be implemented not on purpose or effect of such action.

    3.      Rights Theory
The theory of this right is the approach most often used to evaluate the merits of an act or behavior. Theory of Rights is an aspect of the theory of deontology, as it relates to liability. Rights and obligations are like two sides of the same coin and can not break.

     4.     Virtue theory
Looking at a person's attitude or character. Do not ask whether a particular act is fair or honest, or generous and so forth. The virtues can be defined as follows: disposition of character that has been acquired person and allows him to behave morally lau.


The word selfishness is a term derived from the Latin word ego, which is derived from the ancient Greek word is still used in modern Greek language, which means self or I, and said ism, is used to demonstrate its belief system.
Egoism is the way to maintain and improve a favorable view for himself, and generally have an opinion to improve one's personal image and the importance of intellectual, physical, social and others. This egoism does not see a concern for others and helping people in general and think only about themselves
Selfishness is the core view of the actions of each person is essentially to pursue his interests pirbadi and advance himself. Aristotle berpenapat that the purpose of life and every human action is to pursue happiness. Egoism is moral and ethical, happiness and personal interest in the form of life, rights, and security considered morally good and deserve to be pursued and maintained.

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